NCPN Glossary Terms
COMPREHENSIVE GLOSSARY FOR NCPN MODEL REGULATIONS
The word 'accession' is used in certain plant collections, such as those of the USDA-ARS' repository collections in Davis CA and Geneva NY, and in clean plant centers to indicate a single plant source of one genotype contained within the collection. This term is used alternately with selection.
Agricultural Experiment Station
The Agricultural Experiment Stations are the structure for federated, yet independent, research institutions in each state and territory. The structure was created to address the location-specific problems of farmers and to build a core of basic scientific knowledge related to agriculture. On March 2, 1887, President Grover Cleveland signed legislation promoting 'scientific investigation and experiment respecting the principles and applications of agricultural science' through annual grants to each state and territory to establish agricultural experiment stations under the direction of the land-grant colleges.
Agricultural Research Service
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the chief scientific research agency within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ARS is primarily responsible for the USDA's in-house research activities.
Alcohol Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) is a unit within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. One of the stated missions of the TTB is to ensure that alcohol products are labeled, advertised and marketed in accordance with law. The TTB is responsible for approving grape prime names and synonyms which are used on wine labels in the United States. http://www.ttb.gov/wine
Ampelography is the science of description and identification of grapevines.
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is an agency within the United States Department of Agriculture. APHIS provides leadership to ensure the health and care of animals and plants and has jurisdiction over quarantine programs and plant introductions in the United States. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/.
See Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA).
Apical microshoot tip culture
Apical microshoot tip culture means that an in vitro plant is created from pieces of plant 0.5mm or less in length, consisting of a meristem and a few leaf primordia.
See Agricultural Research Service (USDA)
Asexual propagation means that plants are reproduced using the following methods: cuttings, layering, division, grafting, budding and tissue culture. Asexual propagation does not involve exchange of genetic material because multiplication does not occur through the seed cycle. Asexual reproduction almost always produces plants that are identical to a single parent.
An audit is a systematic and independent examination to determine whether an auditee's activities conform to a set of specified standards of a program. Alternatively, this may be referred to as an audit inspection.
Authorized agent means any person who has been granted authority by the certifying agency to test samples pursuant to certification progra
A bine is a plant such as the hop plant that climbs by wrappings its shoots around a support. These plants are distinct from plants such as grapevines that climb by producing tendrils that bind to growing supports.
A block is a contiguous grouping of plants separated from other contiguous groupings of plants by a buffer zone.
Breach means any detectable opening inadvertently made in an insect-resistant structure or any failure of facilities or procedures that exposes potential escape of a regulated pathogen.
Budding is a form of asexual propagation in which a single bud is grafted to the stock; also known as bud grafting.
A bud variation resulting from local genetic alteration and producing a permanent modification that usually can be retained by grafting.
A bud sport is the product of bud mutation or bud variation.
An area surrounding or adjacent to an area officially delimited for phytosanitary purposes in order to minimize the probability of spread of the target pest or disease into or out of the delimited area, and subject to phytosanitary or other control measures, if appropriate.
California Grapevine Registration & Certification Program
The concept of maintaining a foundation block planting of disease-tested grapevine nursery stock was developed in California in the 1950s. In 1956, the California Department of Food & Agriculture (CDFA) established the California Grapevine Registration & Certification Program, which provided for voluntary participation by nurseries and licensed propagators and targeted the elimination of specific grapevine virus diseases.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is mandated to safeguard Canada’s food supply and the plants and animals upon which safe and high-quality food depends. The CFIA plays an important role in protecting Canada’s plant resource base from pest and diseases. CFIA regulates the import and export of horticultural crops such as grapes and fruit trees. http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/plavege.shtml.
For certification program standards, 'cancelled' means registration status is permanently withdrawn from grapevine(s) or other crop units entered in the program, and the material may no longer serve as a source of foundation, registered or certified stock. Some certification programs use the concept of 'suspended' rather than cancelled for such material.
Candidate G1 Plant
A candidate G1 plant is a plant which is in the process of being tested for designated pathogens and, if necessary, is being treated to eliminate pathogens.
See California Department of Food & Agriculture
A certification program is a comprehensive process established, authorized and performed by a state or other governmental entity to minimize the re-introduction of regulated pests and diseases in planting stock once it has left G1/foundation facilities. The regulations for each program define the program participation, plant production, plant identification and labeling, and quality assurance requirements.
The term 'certified' refers to plant material that has met the requirements and been approved for certification under a specific certification program.
Certified Planting Stock
Certified planting stock means plants, rooted cuttings, cuttings or grafted plants taken or propagated directly from foundation (G1) stock or registered stock in compliance with the provisions of a particular regulatory program. 'Certified' means having met the requirements and approved for certification under a regulatory program.
Certified Nursery Planting
Certified nursery planting means a planting propagated from foundation (G1) or registered stock and maintained in accordance with the provisions a specific certification program.
See Certified Planting Stock
The certifying agency is the official plant regulatory agency, or any entity approved by the official plant regulatory agency, that performs pathogen certification work.
See Cooperative Extension System
See Canadian Food Inspection Agency
See Crop Germplasm Committee
Citrus means ‘citrous’ and any plants of the genera Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus, and all hybrids having one or more of such as parents that could host any disease for which testing is required.
Citrus Clonal Protection Program
The California Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP) was established over 50 years ago (1956-Citrus Variety Improvement Program) and today stands as a cooperative program with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) and the citrus industry of the state of California represented by the California Citrus Nursery Board (CCNB) and the Citrus Research Board (CRB). The purpose of the CCPP is to provide a safe mechanism for the introduction into California of citrus varieties from any citrus-growing area of the world for research, variety improvement, or for use by the commercial industry of the state. This mechanism includes, disease diagnosis and pathogen elimination followed by maintenance and distribution of true to type, primary citrus propagative material of the important fruit and rootstock varieties.
Clean Plant Center Northwest
The Clean Plant Center Northwest (CPCNW) is a collaborative effort of scientists, researchers, nurseries and growers. The program emphasizes the management of diseases caused by viruses and virus-like agents that affect vegetatively propagated perennial plants including temperate climate fruit trees, grapevines and hop plants, and includes an ELISA testing facility for a number of specialty crops. The foundation programs for fruit tree, grapevines and hop plants have been located at the CPCNW since the mid-1960s. CPCNW is based at Washington State University - Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (WSU-IAREC) in Prosser, Washington, and is the largest importation facility for temperate climate fruit trees and hops in the U.S. The Clean Plant Center Northwest is the headquarters of the National Clean Plant Network for Fruit Trees and Hops.
A clone is a plant that is the result of asexual reproduction and is genetically identical to the parent. In a viticultural context, a clone is described as a distinct subtype within a given variety.
‘Commodity’ refers to a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee. Commodities are products that are treated as equivalent regardless of their specific source. See also Specialty Crop.
Commodity Credit Corporation
The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a federally owned and operated corporation within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The CCC was created to stabilize, support, and protect agricultural prices and farm income through loans, purchases, payments and other operations. The National Clean Plant Network funding in the 2008 Farm Bill was administered through the CCC.
‘Common stock’ means plant materials in the nursery trade which are not part of a registration or certification program.
A compliance agreement is a pest- or program-specific agreement that identifies required phytosanitary measures that effectively address state and federal quarantine pests that are regulated in the destination state or country.
‘Contiguous planting’ means a planting of nursery stock on land that is physically intact, without any separations by a public road or by any land used for a purpose unrelated to the planting.
Cooperative Extension System
The Cooperative Extension System (CES) is a national, publicly funded, non-credit educational system that links the educational and research resources and activities of the USDA, land-grant institutions in every state, territory, and the District of Columbia, and approximately 3,150 county administrative units. This unique federal, state, local, and tribal college partnership focuses on practical solutions to critical issues affecting people’s daily lives.
Core Working Group
The Core Working Group (CWG) is the nucleus of the top tier level (Tier 1) of the Governing Body of the National Clean Plant Network. The CWG consists of three USDA agencies (APHIS, ARS, NIFA) who have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to act as a single unit in the NCPN governing structure. Each agency provides its own resources.
A cover crop is a crop planted to prevent soil erosion and suppress weed growth.
Crop Germplasm Committee (CGC)
Crop Germplasm Committee (CGC) is the generic name for a specific national working group of specialists providing analysis, data and recommendations on genetic resources within a specific crop or group of related crops of present or future economic importance. These committees represent their user communities. Forty CGCs provide support to the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) within the USDA.
CSREES is an acronym for Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, which is the former name of the National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA).
Cultivar is a variety or sub-variety of a plant species that was developed under cultivation and is propagated for a specific trait(s).
Cuttings are small pieces of a plant that are cut off from a mother plant and rooted to start new plants. Hardwood cuttings are from dormant plants, and softwood cuttings from growing plants.
See Core Working Group (NCPN Tier 1)
‘Department’ is sometimes used in certification program standards to designate the certifying agency that administers a certification program.
‘Disease agent’ means the pathogen associated with a specific disease.
For purposes of certification program standards, ‘diseased’ means infected with a pathogen or pathogenic agent.
A dormant plant is any plant or plant part that is not in an active state of growth as evidenced by the lack of vegetative bud swelling and/or shoot growth.
ELISA is an acronym for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, which is a serological test in which antibodies are used to detect plant viruses.
See Federal Advisory Committee Act
‘Facility’ is used in certification program standards to mean a building, greenhouse, plant production area, or similar entity established for the purpose of propagating and/or producing nursery plants.
Farm Bill (2008)
The Food, Conservation & Energy Act of 2008 was also known as the ‘2008 Farm Bill’, which was a five-year agricultural policy bill passed by the United States Congress as a continuation of the 2002 Farm Bill. One specific initiative in the bill was four-year funding for a National Clean Plant Network.
Federal Advisory Committee Act
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) was enacted in 1972 to control the growth and operation of the numerous committees, boards, commissions, councils and similar groups which have been established to advise officers and agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government. FACA rules may apply if an advisory committee or board is not composed wholly of full-time or permanent part-time federal employees. The NCPN Governing Body (Tier 1 members and Core Working Group) serves as the advisory body to the USDA for the National Clean Plant Network.
‘Field’ is a plot of land with defined boundaries within a place of production on which a commodity is grown.
Food, Conservation & Energy Act of 2008
The Food, Conservation & Energy Act of 2008 (also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) was a five-year agricultural policy bill passed by the United States Congress as a continuation of the 2002 Farm Bill. One specific initiative in the bill was funding for a National Clean Plant Network.
A foundation block is a planting of a group of mother plants from sources that have been tested for viruses or other diseases and are maintained in isolation under conditions that prevent (re)infection and tested regularly for pathogens identified on a regional basis. In most NCPN-crop certification standards, these blocks are considered Generation 1 (G1) stock within the meaning of the ‘Generation level’ concept recommended by the NAPPO Guidelines.
Foundation block candidate
Foundation block candidate is a plant that will be planted in the foundation (G1) block if the plant meets all requirements specified in the foundation program standard operating procedures and recognized by state regulatory agencies.
Foundation Plant Services
Foundation Plant Services (FPS) is a self-supporting service unit in the College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences at the University of California, Davis. FPS produces, tests, maintains and distributes premium foundation-level plant materials for use by growers and wholesale nurseries. Grapevines and fruit and nut trees are among the crops that are virus-tested for the California certification programs. FPS is the home of the nation’s largest dedicated grape importation facility, processing foreign grape selections through quarantine for evaluation and use by the United States grape industry. FPS is the headquarters for the National Clean Plant Network for Grapes.
Foundation stock means plants which have been produced in a foundation block.
See Foundation Plant Services
The phrase ‘fruit trees’ is used within the NCPN to refer to plants and plant parts for propagation of temperate climate pome and stone fruit trees. This includes all ornamental and fruit bearing species of the following genera: Prunus, Malus, Pyrus, Chaenomeles and Cydonia.
Generation 1 (G1)
The ‘Generation level’ concept is used to define plant material categories in clean stock certification programs. See the complete discussion of Generation levels under ‘Generation, or, Generation level’ (below). Generation 1 (G1) refers to the original mother plants (nuclear or foundation material) that are tested for viruses of concern and maintained in isolation in the foundation block in order to prevent (re)infection. G1 stock is the original source of virus-tested plant material that is distributed to nurseries, growers or other interested parties within certification programs, such as those for grapes, hops, berries, citrus, fruit and nut trees.
Generation 2 (G2)
The ‘Generation level’ concept is used to define plant material categories in clean stock certification programs. See the complete discussion of Generation levels under ‘Generation, or, Generation level’ (below). Generation 2 (G2) plant material is propagated from G1 (foundation, nuclear) stock and grown under specific conditions to prevent or minimize (re)infection. G2 stock is frequently maintained by nurseries in increase blocks to supply to commercial growers.
Generation 3 (G3)
The ‘Generation level’ concept is used to define plant material categories in clean stock certification programs. See the complete discussion of Generation levels under ‘Generation, or, Generation level’ (below). Generation 3 (G3) plant material is propagated from G2 stock. G3 stock is commonly used in secondary increase blocks and certified nursery blocks.
Generation 4 (G4)
The ‘Generation level’ concept is used to define plant material categories in clean stock certification programs. See the complete discussion of Generation levels under ‘Generation, or, Generation level’ (below). Generation 4 (G4) plant material is propagated from G2 or G3 stock. G4 stock means the certified plants destined for delivery to the nursery’s customer.
Generation, or, Generation level (G level)
‘Generation’ or ‘G-level’ signifies the degree to which plant stock is related to the original virus-tested plant material. Regulations developed by certification programs specify the conditions under which each Generation level must be maintained in order to qualify for the program.
Grafting means attaching a scion to a rootstock for the purposes of propagation.
Grapevine(s) are vines, cuttings, grafts, scions, buds, rootstock and other plants and plant products of grapevines for vegetative propagation. Grapevines are included in the genus Vitis.
A growing medium is any material in which plants are growing or intended for that purpose.
Harmonization is the establishment, recognition and application by different countries or states of phytosanitary measures based on common standards.
Heat therapy or heat treatment
Heat treatment is a technique used on plants (for example, grapevines or fruit trees) to aid in the production of a plant free of some pathogens. The plant is heated until it reaches a minimum temperature for a minimum period of time according to an official technical specification. This is usually followed by microshoot tip grafting to a virus-free rootstock or microshoot tip tissue culture.
Hybrids are created by crosses between two different species or two different forms of the same species. Hybrids may occur through natural selection or selective breeding.
An import permit is an official document authorizing importation of a commodity in accordance with specified phytosanitary import requirements.
‘Increase block’ means a nursery planting made with registered or foundation stock which has been registered to serve as a source for the production of plants for a certification program. See Generation 2 and Generation 3, above.
Indexing is a procedure to determine whether a given plant is infected by a virus or other graft transmissible pathogens. It involves the transfer of a bud, scion, sap etc. from one plant to one or more kinds of indicator plants sensitive to the virus.
Indicator plant means any herbaceous or woody plant used to index or determine virus/pathogen infection.
Infected means the establishment of a pathogen within a host plant.
Inspection means an official examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations.
Intermediate source vine
Intermediate source vine is a phrase used in the California grapevine certification program standards to refer to a vine growing in an increase block that serves as a source for propagation materials used to make another vine or topwork another vine planted in the same registered increase block or in a secondary increase block.
International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)
The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is an international treaty to prevent the spread and introduction of pests and diseases of plants and plant products and to promote appropriate measures for their control. It is governed by the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM), which adopts International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs). The CPM has confirmed the IPP as the preferred forum for national IPPC reporting and the exchange of more general information among the phytosanitary community.
International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM)
The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) is an international standard adopted by the Conference of FAO (the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures or the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, established under the IPPC.
See International Plant Protection Convention
See also Clean Plant Center Northwest. IR-2 or Inter-regional project number 2 was created in 1955 and originally located at the USDA-ARS site in Moxee, WA but moved to Washington State University – IAREC, Prosser, WA. The program became the National Research Support Research Project – Number 005 in 1988 and eventually the Clean Plant Center Northwest Fruit Trees in 2011. Each change reflected a change in the funding mechanism. Several state regulatory documents still refer to IR-2.
See Buffer zone.
See International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures
Land Grant University
A land grant institution is a college or university that has been designated by its state legislature or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. The original mission of these institutions, as set forth in the first Morrill Act, was to teach agriculture, military tactics, and the mechanical arts, as well as classical studies, so that members of the working classes could obtain a liberal, practical education.
Macroshoot tip tissue culture therapy
Macroshoot tip culture is a disease elimination technique whereby tissue pieces are excised from a plant and cultured in sterile growth media apart from the plant. This technique is effective for eliminating bacterial and fungal contaminants such as Agrobacterium vitis (crown gall), but not for elimination of viral contaminants. In this technique, the tissue pieces (cells) are harvested from a tip of the plant. The tip that is excised is approximately 10 mm (larger than the tip size for microshoot tip tissue culture). The excised tip is placed in sterile tissue culture growth media, where the new plant develops.
Meristem tip (tissue) culture
Meristem tip culture is tissue culture in which the meristem tip of a plant is extracted from the shoot and placed in tissue culture. A true meristem is so small the tip has no leaf primordia.
A microplantlet is a plantlet produced in vitro on a defined medium.
Micropropagation means vegetatively propagating plant material in vitro by means of nodal cuttings.
Microshoot tip (tissue) culture
A meristem tip of less than 0.5 mm is extracted from the shoot and placed in sterile tissue culture growth media, where the new plant develops. A microshoot tip normally includes several leaf primodia.
Microshoot tip grafting
A shoot tip of approximately 0.5 cm is extracted from the donor plant (typically from heat therapy) and cleft grafted onto virus-free rootstock.
Mother vine means a grapevine used as a source for propagation material.
Three federal agencies within the USDA signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) in 2009 to administer as a single entity the National Clean Plant Network. The three agencies (ARS, APHIS and NIFA) became known collectively as the Core Working Group.
See North American Plant Protection Organization
National Clean Plant Network
The National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) is a national network created in 2008 to protect U.S. specialty crop agriculture and the environment from the spread of targeted plant diseases and pests that cause economic damage. The enabling legislation requires that the NCPN: (1) produce clean propagative material; and (2) maintain blocks of pathogen-tested plant material throughout the United States. Initial efforts are focused on asexually propagated plant material with a primary emphasis on fruit crops such as grapes and fruit trees.
National Clean Plant Network - Berries
The National Clean Plant Network for Berries is a commodity committee of the National Clean Plant Network, created to protect U.S. specialty crop agriculture and the environment from the spread of targeted plant diseases and pests of berry crops that cause economic damage. The enabling legislation requires that the NCPN: (1) produce clean propagative material; and (2) maintain blocks of pathogen-tested material throughout the United States.
National Clean Plant Network - Citrus
Each commodity in the National Clean Plant Network has its own governing structure. The National Clean Plant Network for Citrus is the Tier 2 body that represents the citrus industry in the National Clean Plant Network. The Citrus Clean Plant Network (CCPNC) was added to the NCPN in 2010. The headquarters of the CCPNC is at the University of California, Riverside.
National Clean Plant Network - Fruit Trees
Each commodity in the National Clean Plant Network has its own governing structure. The National Clean Plant Network Fruit Trees (NCPNFT) is composed of a single national body for the entire United States (Tier 2). The Clean Plant Center Northwest at Washington State University-IAREC), Prosser, Washington, acts as the headquarters for the NCPN-Fruit Trees (Tier 2).
National Clean Plant Network - Grapes
Each commodity in the National Clean Plant Network has its own governing structure. The National Clean Plant Network for Grapes is the Tier 2 body that represents the grape and wine industry in the National Clean Plant Network. Foundation Plant Services (UC Davis) acts as the headquarters for the National Clean Plant Network for Grapes.
National Clean Plant Network - Hops
Each commodity in the National Clean Plant Network has its own governing structure. The National Clean Plant Network for Hops is the Tier 2 body that represents the hop industry in the National Clean Plant Network. The Hop program is part of the Clean Plant Center Northwest at Washington State University-IAREC, Prosser, Washington.
National Clonal Germplasm Repository System
The USDA-ARS oversees a germplasm repository system whose responsibility is to acquire, characterize, preserve, document, and distribute to scientists, germplasm of all life forms important for food and agricultural production. The federal system of germplasm repositories has multiple sites throughout the country, containing many crops such as ornamentals, grapes, citrus, dates and fruit trees.
National Grapevine Importation Program
The National Grapevine Importation Program is a cooperative effort initiated by the University of California (Foundation Plant Services), the United States Department of Agriculture, the California Department of Food & Agriculture and the grape industry. The Program is the largest nationally-recognized program for importing grape selections into the United States. The Program is based at FPS in Davis, California, which serves as both an importation and quarantine facility with state-of-the-art laboratory for disease detection and elimination as well as field plantings. The self-supporting program enables grape growers, nurseries, researchers and wineries to bring valuable new selections into the United States without the threat of importing foreign exotic pests and diseases that could cause serious damage to the industry.
National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is an agency within the USDA that unites research, higher education, and extension education and outreach resources. Its mission is to advance knowledge for agriculture, the environment, human health and well being, and communities. A broad spectrum of public and private partnerships, including other USDA agencies, federal and state government departments, nonprofit organizations, and private sector entities strengthens NIFA contributions. NIFA is also the federal partner of the Cooperative Extension System. NIFA was formerly known as the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES).
National Plant Board
The National Plant Board is a non-profit organization of the plant pest regulatory agencies of each of the states within the United States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Member agencies must be members in good standing of the regional plant board in which their state is located. The purpose of the national board is to address regional plant board recommendations and to harmonize plant health programs and plant pest prevention and regulation initiatives.
National Plant Protection Organization
A National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) is an official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC. For the United States, the NPPO is USDA.
National Research Initiative
The National Research Initiative (NRI) is a competitive research and integrated research/education/extension grants program administered by NIFA.
See National Clean Plant Network.
See National Clean Plant Network - Berries.
See National Clean Plant Network – Citrus.
See National Clean Plant Network – Fruit Trees.
See National Clean Plant Network – Hops.
See National Clean Plant Network - Grapes.
NE 1020 Program: Multistate Evaluation of Wine Grape Cultivars and Clones
The NE1020 Program is a multistate research initiative sponsored by NIFA for the evaluation of winegrape cultivars and clones throughout the United States. The research project will test the performance of clones of the major global cultivars and of new or previously neglected wine grape cultivars, such as hybrids, in the different wine grape growing regions within the United States. The goal is to improve the competitiveness of U.S. grape growers and wineries by providing performance and quality information that is much need for planting decisions.
See National Institute of Food and Agriculture, formerly CSREES.
North American Plant Protection Organization
The North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) is a regional Plant Protection Organization of the International Plant Protection Convention. NAPPO coordinates the efforts among Canada, the United States and Mexico to protect their plant resources from the entry, establishment and spread of regulated plant pests and diseases, while facilitating intra/ interregional trade.
As used in certification program standards, ‘notify’ means communication of information in writing, in person, by phone, email, or by fax.
See National Plant Protection Organization.
See National Research Initiative (NRI)
see also Clean Plant Center Northwest. The National Research Support Project – Number 005 was created in 1988 from the Inter-regional Project Number 2 to provide virus-tested temperate climate fruit trees. The program eventually became the Clean Plant Center Northwest Fruit Trees in 2011. Each change reflected a change in the funding mechanism. Several state regulatory documents still refer to NRSP5
see also Clean Plant Center Northwest. A grape foundation program was established at Washington State University – IAREC in 1961 and embodied in Washington State Department of Agriculture regulations in 1976. The program was revitalized in 2001 as NorthWest Grape Foundation Services in response to growing expansion of the grape industry in the Pacific Northwest. The NWGFS was incorporated into the Clean Plant Center Northwest in 2011.
Official means established, authorized or performed by a regulatory agency such as the USDA or a state certification agency.
Official sample is used in certification program standards to mean a sample collected by the regulatory agency with the legal authority to do so.
Off-type means appearing under visual examination to be different from the variety listed on the application for registration and certification, or exhibiting symptoms of a genetic or non-transmissible disorder.
Oregon Certified Grape Nursery Stock
Oregon Certified Grape Nursery Stock means vines, rootings, cuttings, grafts or buds taken or propagated from foundation or registered stock and certified in accordance with the Oregon regulations.
Participant is a nursery that participates in this pathogen-tested certification program and meets all requirements of this standard.
A pathogen is a micro-organism causing disease. Examples of pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and phytoplasmas.
Pathogen-tested means tested for and found to be free of pathogens as defined by a regulatory standard.
PCR is an acronym for Polymerase Chain Reaction. PCR is a laboratory detection technique for plant pathogens that amplifies a segment of DNA or RNA from the target organism (for example, a virus) many times by using short segments of DNA (primer) that are complimentary to the target nucleic acid.
A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products.
Pest Management Plan
A pest management plan is a written description of procedures and processes designed to control , suppress or eradicate pest populations to a level that meets the phytosanitary standards of a certification program.
Petition refers to a formal, written application to a regulatory agency seeking approval to release an organism into the environment. The organism could represent a non-native biological control agent, pollinator or plant from a foreign or restricted source.
PFPP is a pest free place of production.
PFPS is a pest free production site.
A ‘phantom diesease’ is a phrase that refers to a plant disease described in historic scientific literature but for which a causal agent was never identified, no reference specimen exits, and for which substantiated reports/occurrences of the disease have not been recorded in the past 30 years.
A phytosanitary measure is any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of pests or diseases.
Plant Genetic Resources Unit
The Plant Genetic Resources Unit is a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS) facility in Geneva, New York. It is a component of the U.S. National Plant Germplasm system. The PGRU was formed in 1986 by merging the Northeast Regional Plant Introduction Station (NERPIS) and the National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Apple, Tart Cherry and Grape (NGR).
Plant Introduction number
P.I. is an abbreviation for ‘Plant Introduction’ number. P.I.s have been issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture – APHIS when a plant is imported into the United States. Grape accessions at the USDA-ARS facilities at Davis and Geneva may have both a P.I. number and a local identifying number (DVIT in Davis, GVIT in Geneva).
Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) is a program within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the USDA. PPQ safeguards agriculture and natural resources from the risks associated with the entry, establishment or spread of animal and plant pests and diseases and noxious weeds to ensure an abundant, high-quality and varied food supply. PPQ regulates the importation of plant materials into the United States.
Plant quarantine includes all activities designed to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests and diseases or to ensure their official control.
Plants include living plants and parts thereof, and germplasm.
Plants for planting
‘Plants for planting’ refers to plants intended to remain planted, to be planted or replanted.
Pome fruit includes plants of the genera Malus, Pyrus, Chaenomeles and Cydonia.
See Plant Protection and Quarantine
Primary increase block
Some states use unique terms to describe plant material within the registration & certification programs. For example, in the regulations for the California Grapevine Registration & Certification Program, the term ‘primary increase block’ means a planting of grapevines established with G1 source material and used as a G2 by a nursery.
The term ‘prime name’ arises frequently in connection with identification of grapevine cultivars. Prime name means the name of the cultivar in its (probable) country of origin. If several names (synonyms) of one cultivar are known, the prime name is the name under which the cultivar is the most widespread.
Progeny refers to the product of sexual reproduction of plants. In vegetatively propagated plants, it refers to a plant propagated from a parent rootstock and/or a parent top-stock source which has been indexed and is intended for planting in a G1 (foundation) block.
Propagative materials means seeds, cuttings, buds, budsticks, graft sticks or micropropagated materials taken from a plant.
Proprietary status indicates that distribution of particular plant material within the United States is restricted to or controlled by a specific entity.
Some state certification programs use the concept of ‘provisional stock’ to define plant material in the program. Provisional stock means propagative materials taken from plants that have not yet satisfied requirements for full release. In the case of grapevines, it means the vines have successfully completed all required disease testing but have yet to be verified as true to variety. In the fruit tree program, a tree can be released to a block under control by a state regulatory agency when it has completed testing for specified easily transmitted disease agents. If a disease is subsequently discovered in a tree that has been released on a provisional basis, all released material will be destroyed.
Quarantine is the official confinement of regulated articles for observation and research or for further inspection, testing and/or treatment.
A quarantine pest is a pest or disease of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled.
A registered plant is a plant that has been enrolled in a virus-tested certification program and meets all requirements of the applicable certification program.
Some state certification programs use the term ‘Registered stock’ when referring to material in the program. For example, the California Grapevine Registration & Ceritifcation Program uses ‘registered stock’ to refer to plants which have been produced in an increase block in accordance with the guidelines of the certification program.
In some state certification programs, a ‘Registered vine’ means any vine propagated from a G1 (foundation) block, identified to a single vine source, and registered with the appropriate regulatory agency. Additionally, in the certification regulations in states such as California, the term ‘registered vine’ means that a particular selection in the G1 (foundation) block has been professionally identified as true to type.
Regulated non-quarantine pest
A non-quarantine pest or disease is one whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party.
A regulated pest is a quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest.
Restriction is a phytosanitary regulation allowing the importation or movement of specified commodities subject to specific requirements.
The word ‘selection’ is used to indicate a single plant source for plant material within a collection. The term selection is used interchangeably with the terms clone or accession in many other programs.
A scion is a detached living shoot of a plant, especially one cut for the purpose of being grafted onto rootstock or another plant.
See State Agriculture Experiment Stations.
Secondary increase block
For some certification regulations, such as those for the California grapevine program, ‘secondary increase block’ refers to a planting established by a participant in the program with propagative materials from one or more of that participant’s primary increase block(s) or from the foundation block. In most NCPN-crop standards, this planting would be the equivalent to a G3 block.
Shoot tip ( tissue) culture
See Microshoot tip (tissue) culture.
The Specialty Crop Competitiveness Act of 2004 and the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 have defined specialty crops as “fruits and vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits, horticulture, and nursery crops (including floriculture).” Eligible plants must be intensively cultivated and used by people for food, medicinal purposes, and/or aesthetic gratification to be considered specialty crops. Processed products shall constitute greater than 50% of the specialty crop by weight, exclusive of added water. Specialty crops in the National Clean Plant Network currently (2013) include grapevines and fruit and nut trees, citrus, berries and hop plants. (http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/ams.fetchTemplateData.do?template=TemplateJ&page=SCBGPDefinitions
State Agriculture Experiment Stations (SAES)
The State Agriculture Experiment Stations (SAES) is the structure for federated, yet independent, research institutions in each state and territory. The structure was created to address the location-specific problems of farmers and to build a core of basic scientific knowledge related to agriculture. On March 2, 1887, President Grover Cleveland signed legislation promoting ‘scientific investigation and experiment respecting the principles and applications of agricultural science’ through annual grants to each state and territory to establish agricultural experiment stations under the direction of the land-grant colleges.
State Departments of Agriculture
Each of the 50 states and Puerto Rico has a state-level agency with regulatory authority for agriculture. These state agriculture departments often serve as the certifying agency in virus-tested specialty crop certification programs. A listing of the state agricultural department for each state can be found at http://www.nationalplantboard.org/member/.
The word ‘stock’ can be used generally in reference to planting material to mean plants, rooted cuttings, cuttings or grafted plants. Additionally, the word ‘stock’ is also used more specifically to refer to rootstock or understock, which is a stem or root in which a bud or scion is inserted in grafting.
Stone fruit includes plants of the genus Prunus.
For certification program standards, the word ‘suspended’ means registration status is temporarily withdrawn from material previously included in the registration and certification program.
The word ‘synonym’ arises frequently in reference to grapevine cultivars. Individual grape cultivars are frequently known by many names across regions and countries. The multiple names are known as synonyms. The concepts of ‘prime name’ and ‘synonyms’ may become an issue in the context of proper identification of a grapevine cultivar. Synonyms are also common for viruses and appear on many virus lists.
Systems approach refers to the integration of different risk management measures, at least two of which act independently, and which cumulatively achieve the appropriate level of protection against regulated pests (ISPM 14, 2002).
Target organism means an insect vector or disease agent for which control measures are implemented.
Test or testing
Test includes an official examination, other than visual, to determine if pests are present or to identify pests. This may include biological indexing, serological, or molecular procedures, or other methods approved by the certifying agency.
See Heat therapy or heat treatment.
The National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) is composed of a tiered governance structure. Tier 1 is the primary or top level in that structure. The seven voting members of the Tier 1 Board must be state or federal employees and include the Core Working Group, state and federal regulatory personnel, a Crop Germplasm employee, and representatives from the lower tiers for the grape, fruit tree,. citrus, berry and hops networks. Subject matter experts are invited as advisory members. The Tier 1 Board will solicit proposals and make funding distribution decisions among the commodities in the NCPN.
The National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) is composed of a tiered governance structure. Tier 2 is the secondary or national level of governance for each NCPN crop. There are currently active NCPN Tier 2 Boards for Citrus, Berries, Fruit Trees, Grapes and Hops.
The National Clean Plant Network for Grapes was formerly subdivided into Eastern and Western Regional Networks (Tier 3). Each Tier 3 Network had its own governing board and sent representatives to the NCPN Grapes Tier 2 Board. Tier 3 for the West was composed roughly of the Western states, including California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Tier 3 for the East was composed of all the remaining states with an interest in grape certification programs. The Tier 3 structure was eliminated in 2009 when the NCPN Grapes Board voted to unify into a single Tier 2 Board.
General term for the cultivation of plants (cells, tissues or organs) under aseptic conditions in a synthetic medium in vitro. It also refers to the cultures themselves
Topworking means budding or grafting of another variety on top of existing stock.
True to type
A plant is true-to-type when it displays characteristics or qualities consistent with established traits of the named cultivar or clone. In some cases, it can be confirmed by genetic analysis. This is also sometimes referred to as ‘true to variety’.
See Alcohol Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the third-largest civilian department of the United States government. The Department oversees a variety of agencies, government corporations, and other entities that employ more than 100,000 people at more than 15,000 locations in all 50 states and in 80 countries.
See United States Department of Agriculture.
Variety is a subdivision of a species. The term cultivar is preferred for horticultural varieties which are produced by selective breeding and maintained in cultivation.
A virus is a submicroscopic obligate parasite consisting of nucleic acid and protein. Viruses and virus-like pathogens including phytoplasmas, viroids and graft-transmissible agents are tested in importation and certification programs.
Virus-certified stock means plants for planting and propagation produced under an official virus testing and certification program.
Virus-infected means infected by a virus or manifesting symptoms or behavior characteristic of a virus disease.
Virus-like means a graft-transmissible disorder with symptoms resembling a characterized virus disease, including, but not limited to, disorders caused by viroids, phytoplasmas and uncharacterized viruses.
Tested for and found free of viruses of concern
Washington Certified (Hop) Planting Stock Program
see also Clean Plant Center Northwest. The Washington Certified (Hop) Planting Stock Program was created in 1964 to provide hop plants to certified nurseries in Washington State. In 2010 it became the core of the National Clean Plant Network Hops and began supplying hop plants nationally. In 2011, it was incorporated into the Clean Plant Center Northwest.
Western Research and Extension Activity – 020: “Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, and Grapevines” was established in 1974 to facilitate collaboration to accelerate significant advancements in virus and virus-like disease management for perennial fruit tree crops. It was subsequently expanded to include grapevines, berries, citrus and hops. It provides a forum for researchers and regulatory agencies to identify emerging problems and potential strategies for their solution. This and related programs are supported by the Multistate Research Fund (MRF) established in 1998 by the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act (an amendment to the Hatch Act of 1888) to encourage and enhance multistate, multidisciplinary research on critical issues that have a national or regional priority.
An official document specifying the phytosanitary measures agreed to by the National Plant Protection Organizations of both importing and exporting countries, intended to prevent the movement of regulated pests while facilitating trade of plants and plant products.
The following documents were used as guidance in the development of these definitions:
- NAPPO Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, RSPM 5 (NAPPO Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms), February 28, 2012 (NAPPO)
- International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 5, Annotated Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms, March 2008 (ISPM)
- The International Plant Protection Convention, as revised November 1997 (IPPC)
- Definitions in the Canadian Fruit Tree Export Program DRAFT regulations (CFIA)
- Definitions from the regulations for the California Grapevine Registration & Certification Program, April 20, 2010 (CA Grapevine Regs.)
- Definitions from the regulations for the Oregon program for Registration and Certification of Grape Nursery Stock (ORE Grape Regs)
- Definitions in the regulations for the Washington program for Grape planting stock – registration and certification, December 15, 2010 (WA Grape Regs)
- Definitions from the Draft of the Model Fruit Tree Regulations, developed by the NCPN-Fruit Trees (NCPN FT)
- Definitions from the regulations for the California Citrus Nursery Stock Pest Cleanliness Program, June 30, 2011 (‘CA Citrus Regs.’)
- The National Gardening Association, Dictionary of Horticulture, 1996 (Horticultural dictionary)
- The glossary on the NCPN stakeholders’ website (NCPN website)
- The glossary on the National Grape Registry website (NGR website)
- Original draft (10/01/2012: nls)
- Original + Rose Gergerich Berries (9/14/2012)
- Version 9/14/2012 with yellow highlights for definitions with multiple entries (10/01/2012)
- Added definition of ‘Phantom disease’ (2/21/2013)
- Golino edited and selected a preferred definition for each term (3/7/2013)
- Rose provided edits (3/8/2013)
- Wayne Dixon and Sophia Kamenidou’s edits incorporated as well (5/8/2013)
- Debbie Woodbury provided edits for consistency and expanded crop definitions (6/20/2013
- Eastwell provided edits (6/23/2013)
- Golino incorporated all (7/1/2013)
- Ruth Welliver edited on July 10, 2013
- Nancy Osterbauer edited document on July 22, 2013.
- Nancy Sweet added list of documents used as guidance to do initial draft of Glossary (8/6/2013)
- Comments from NCPN Operations Committee members added on August 9, 2013